Proteux | Global Energy & Metals Company


Anthracite coal, mined from the planet’s oldest geological formations, has spent the longest time underground. The coal has been subjected to the most pressure and heat, making it the most compressed and hardest coal available. Hard coal contains greater potential to produce heat energy than softer, more recent, geological coal.

Anthracite is considered the cleanest burning coal available. It produces more heat and less smoke than other coals and is widely used in hand-fired furnaces. Some residential home heating stove systems still use anthracite, which burns longer than wood. Anthracite has been nicknamed “hard coal,” especially by locomotive engineers who used it for fueling trains.

Anthracite contains a high amount of fixed carbon — 80 to 95 percent — and very low sulfur and nitrogen —– less than 1 percent each. Volatile matter is low at approximately 5 percent, with 10 to 20 percent ash possible.

Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation.

Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness (2.75–3 on the Mohs scale), its higher relative density of 1.3–1.4, and luster, which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous coal into anthracite.


Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a composition of methane and some mixture of ethane used to convert natural gas to liquid form for ease and safety of storage transport. It is cooled to approximately -256 degrees Fahrenheit so that it can be transported from countries with a large supply of natural gas to countries that demand more natural gas than they produce. In its liquid state, natural gas takes up 1/600th of the space, making it much easier to ship and store when pipeline transport is not feasible. As world energy consumption increases, experts anticipate that the LNG trade will grow in importance.

Liquefied natural gas is primarily used to transport natural gas from one source to another. Exporters use this method when shipping to different countries and across bodies of water when pipelines aren’t available. There are two main approaches to liquefy natural gas in large quantities: the cascade process and the Linde method. The cascade process refers to the cooling of one gas by another gas, resulting in a cascading effect.

Liquefied natural gas is best known as a transport tool, but it is starting to gain mainstream adoption. The automotive industry is evaluating the usefulness of the gas as fuel for internal combustion engines in over the road trucking, off-road vehicles, marine vessels and railways. Because of its physical state, natural gas is inherently a domestic product. As a gas, the hydrocarbon must be transported by pipeline, which restricts the number of end users. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) was developed in 1964 as a solution to this problem.